Merriam Webster defines a heretic as “someone who believes or teaches something that goes against accepted or official beliefs”. Though it is usually associated with the Middle Ages, the use of the word heretic even to this day provokes strong reactions from many people. In Taking the Cross, the groups branded as heretics are the Albigenses and Valdenses. They are more commonly known as the Albigensians (or Cathars) and Waldensians (or The Poor of Lyons). Though the Albigensians were largely eliminated by the Albigensian crusade and the Inquisition that followed, the Waldensians survived despite continued persecution and eventually joined the Reformation 300 years later. There are Waldensian congregations that exist today.
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